You people say that Abu Huraira tells many narrations from Allah's Apostle and you also wonder why the emigrants and Ansar do not narrate from Allah's Apostle as Abu Huraira does. My emigrant brothers were busy in the market while I used to stick to Allah's Apostle content with what fills my stomach; so I used to be present when they were absent and I used to remember when they used to forget, and my Ansari brothers used to be busy with their properties and I was one of the poor men of Suffa. I used to remember the narrations when they used to forget. No doubt, Allah's Apostle once said, "Whoever spreads his garment till I have finished my present speech and then gathers it to himself, will remember whatever I will say." So, I spread my colored garment which I was wearing till Allah's Apostle had finished his saying, and then I gathered it to my chest. So, I did not forget any of that narrations.
Narrated Ibrahim bin Sad from his father from his grand-father:
Abdur Rahman bin Auf said, "When we came to Medina as emigrants, Allah's Apostle established a bond of brotherhood between me and Sad bin Ar-Rabi'. Sad bin Ar-Rabi' said (to me), 'I am the richest among the Ansar, so I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you may choose I will divorce her, and when she has completed the prescribed period (before marriage) you may marry her.' Abdur-Rahman replied, "I am not in need of all that. Is there any market-place where trade is practiced?' He replied, "The market of Qainuqa." Abdur-Rahman went to that market the following day and brought some dried butter-milk (yogurt) and butter, and then he continued going there regularly. Few days later, 'AbdurRahman came having traces of yellow (scent) on his body. Allah's Apostle asked him whether he had got married. He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said, 'Whom have you married?' He replied, 'A woman from the Ansar.' Then the Prophet asked, 'How much did you pay her?' He replied, '(I gave her) a gold piece equal in weigh to a date stone (or a date stone of gold)! The Prophet said, 'Give a Walima (wedding banquet) even if with one sheep .' "
When Abdur-Rahman bin Auf came to Medina, the Prophet established a bond of brotherhood between him and Sad bin Ar-Rabi al-Ansari. Sad was a rich man, so he said to 'Abdur-Rahman, "I will give you half of my property and will help you marry." 'Abdur-Rahman said (to him), "May Allah bless you in your family and property. Show me the market." So 'Abdur-Rahman did not return from the market) till he gained some dried buttermilk (yoghurt) and butter (through trading). He brought that to his house-hold. We stayed for some-time (or as long as Allah wished), and then Abdur-Rahman came, scented with yellowish perfume. The Prophet said (to him) "What is this?" He replied, "I got married to an Ansari woman." The Prophet asked, "What did you pay her?" He replied, "A gold stone or gold equal to the weight of a date stone." The Prophet said (to him), "Give a wedding banquet even if with one sheep."
'Ukaz, Majanna and Dhul-Majaz were market-places in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance. When Islam came, Muslims felt that marketing there might be a sin. So, the Divine Inspiration came: "There is no harm for you to seek the bounty of your Lord (in the seasons of Hajj)." (2.198) Ibn 'Abbas recited the Verse in this way.
The Prophet said "Both legal and illegal things are obvious, and in between them are (suspicious) doubtful matters. So who-ever forsakes those doubtful things lest he may commit a sin, will definitely avoid what is clearly illegal; and who-ever indulges in these (suspicious) doubtful things bravely, is likely to commit what is clearly illegal. Sins are Allah's Hima (i.e. private pasture) and whoever pastures (his sheep) near it, is likely to get in it at any moment."
Utba bin Abu Waqqas took a firm promise from his brother Sad bin Abu Waqqas to take the son of the slave-girl of Zam'a into his custody as he was his (i.e. 'Utba's) son. In the year of the Conquest (of Mecca) Sad bin Abu Waqqas took him, and said that he was his brother's son, and his brother took a promise from him to that effect. 'Abu bin Zam'a got up and said, "He is my brother and the son of the slave-girl of my father and was born on my father's bed." Then they both went to the Prophet Sad said, "O Allah's Apostle! He is the son of my brother and he has taken a promise from me that I will take him." 'Abu bin Zam'a said, "(He is) my brother and the son of my father's slave-girl and was born on my father's bed." Allah's Apostle said, "The boy is for you. O 'Abu bin Zam'a." Then the Prophet said, "The son is for the bed (i.e the man on whose bed he was born) and stones (disappointment and deprivation) for the one who has done illegal sexual intercourse." The Prophet told his wife Sauda bint Zam'a to screen herself from that boy as he noticed a similarity between the boy and 'Utba. So, the boy did not see her till he died.
I asked Allah's Apostle about Al Mirad (i.e. a sharp-edged piece of wood or a piece of wood provided with a piece of iron used for hunting). He replied, "If the game is hit by its sharp edge, eat it, and if it is hit by its broad side, do not eat it, for it has been beaten to death." I asked, "O Allah's Apostle! I release my dog by the name of Allah and find with it at the game, another dog on which I have not mentioned the name of Allah, and I do not know which one of them caught the game." Allah's Apostle said (to him), 'Don't eat it as you have mentioned the name of Allah on your dog and not on the other dog."
The Prophet passed by a fallen date and said, "Were it not for my doubt that this might have been given in charity, I would have eaten it." And narrated Abu Huraira the Prophet said, "I found a date-fruit fallen on my bed."
that his uncle said: "The Prophet was asked: If a person feels something during his prayer; should one interrupt his prayer?" The Prophet said: No! You should not give it up unless you hear a sound or smell something." Narrated Ibn Abi Hafsa: Az-Zuhri said, "There is no need of repeating ablution unless you detect a smell or hear a sound."
Some people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Meat is brought to us by some people and we are not sure whether the name of Allah has been mentioned on it or not (at the time of slaughtering the animals)." Allah's Apostle said (to them), "Mention the name of Allah and eat it."
While we were offering the prayer with the Prophet a caravan carrying food came from Sham. The people looked towards the caravan (and went to it) and only twelve persons remained with the Prophet. So, the Divine Inspiration came; "But when they see some bargain or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it." (62.11)
I used to practice money exchange, and I asked Zaid bin 'Arqam about it, and he narrated what the Prophet said in the following: Abu Al-Minhal said, "I asked Al-Bara' bin 'Azib and Zaid bin Arqam about practicing money exchange. They replied, 'We were traders in the time of Allah's Apostle and I asked Allah's Apostle about money exchange. He replied, 'If it is from hand to hand, there is no harm in it; otherwise it is not permissible."
Abu Musa asked Umar to admit him but he was not admitted as 'Umar was busy, so Abu Musa went back. When 'Umar finished his job he said, "Didn't I hear the voice of 'Abdullah bin Qais? Let him come in." 'Umar was told that he had left. So, he sent for him and on his arrival, he (Abu Musa) said, "We were ordered to do so (i.e. to leave if not admitted after asking permission thrice). 'Umar told him, "Bring witness in proof of your statement." Abu Musa went to the Ansar's meeting places and asked them. They said, "None amongst us will give this witness except the youngest of us, Abu Said Al-Khudri. Abu Musa then took Abu Said Al-Khudri (to 'Umar) and 'Umar said, surprisingly, "Has this order of Allah's Apostle been hidden from me?" (Then he added), "I used to be busy trading in markets."
A caravan arrived (at Medina) while we were offering the Jumua prayer with the Prophet. The people left out for the caravan, with the exception of twelve persons. Then this Verse was revealed: 'But when they see some bargain or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it and leave you standing." (62.11)
The Prophet said, "If a woman gives in charity from her house meals without wasting (i.e. being extravagant), she will get the reward for her giving, and her husband will also get the reward for his earning and the storekeeper will also get a similar reward. The acquisition of the reward of none of them will reduce the reward of the others."
Anas went to the Prophet with barley bread having some dissolved fat on it. The Prophet had mortgaged his armor to a Jew in Medina and took from him some barley for his family. Anas heard him saying, "The household of Muhammad did not possess even a single Sa of wheat or food grains for the evening meal, although he has nine wives to look after." (See Hadith No. 685)
When Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was chosen Caliph, he said, "My people know that my profession was not incapable of providing substance to my family. And as I will be busy serving the Muslim nation, my family will eat from the National Treasury of Muslims, and I will practise the profession of serving the Muslims."
The Prophet said, "Before your time the angels received the soul of a man and asked him, 'Did you do any good deeds (in your life)?' He replied, 'I used to order my employees to grant time to the rich person to pay his debts at his convenience.' So Allah said to the angels; "Excuse him." Rabi said that (the dead man said), 'I used to be easy to the rich and grant time to the poor.' Or, in another narration, 'grant time to the well-off and forgive the needy,' or, 'accept from the well-off and forgive the needy.'
The Prophet said, "There was a merchant who used to lend the people, and whenever his debtor was in straitened circumstances, he would say to his employees, 'Forgive him so that Allah may forgive us.' So, Allah forgave him."
Allah's Apostle said, "The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities (of the goods), then they would be blessed in their transaction, and if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost."
We used to be given mixed dates (from the booty) and used to sell (barter) two Sas of those dates) for one Sa (of good dates). The Prophet said (to us), "No (bartering of) two Sas for one Sa nor two Dirhams for one Dirham is permissible", (as that is a kind of usury). (See Hadith No. 405).
An Ansari man, called Abu Shu'aib, came and told his butcher slave, "Prepare meals sufficient for five persons, for I want to invite the Prophet along with four other persons as I saw signs of hunger on his face." Abu Shu'aib invited them and another person came along with them. The Prophet said (to Abu Shu'aib), This man followed us, so if you allow him, he will join us, and if you want him to return, he will go back." Abu Shu'aib said, "No, I have allowed him (i.e. he, too, is welcomed to the meal)."
The Prophet aid, "The buyer and the seller have the option to cancel or to confirm the deal, as long as they have not parted or till they part, and if they spoke the truth and told each other the defects of the things, then blessings would be in their deal, and if they hid something and told lies, the blessing of the deal would be lost."
The Prophet said, "This night I dreamt that two men came and took me to a Holy land whence we proceeded on till we reached a river of blood, where a man was standing, and on its bank was standing another man with stones in his hands. The man in the middle of the river tried to come out, but the other threw a stone in his mouth and forced him to go back to his original place. So, whenever he tried to come out, the other man would throw a stone in his mouth and force him to go back to his former place. I asked, 'Who is this?' I was told, 'The person in the river was a Riba-eater."
My father bought a slave who practiced the profession of cupping. (My father broke the slave's instruments of cupping). I asked my father why he had done so. He replied, "The Prophet forbade the acceptance of the price of a dog or blood, and also forbade the profession of tattooing, getting tattooed and receiving or giving Riba, (usury), and cursed the picture-makers."
A man displayed some goods in the market and swore by Allah that he had been offered so much for that, that which was not offered, and he said so, so as to cheat a Muslim. On that occasion the following Verse was revealed: "Verily! Those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah's covenant and their oaths (They shall have no portion in the Hereafter ..etc.)' (3.77)
I got an old she-camel as my share from the booty, and the Prophet had given me another from Al-Khumus. And when I intended to marry Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), I arranged that a goldsmith from the tribe of Bani Qainuqa' would accompany me in order to bring Idhkhir and then sell it to the goldsmiths and use its price for my marriage banquet.
Allah's Apostle said, "Allah made Mecca a sanctuary and it was neither permitted for anyone before, nor will it be permitted for anyone after me (to fight in it). And fighting in it was made legal for me for a few hours of a day only. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs or to cut down its trees or to chase its game or to pick up its Luqata (fallen things) except by a person who would announce it publicly." 'Abbas bin 'Abdul-Muttlib requested the Prophet, "Except Al-Idhkhir, for our goldsmiths and for the roofs of our houses." The Prophet said, "Except Al-Idhkhir." 'Ikrima said, "Do you know what is meant by chasing its game? It is to drive it out of the shade and sit in its place." Khalid said, "('Abbas said: Al-Idhkhir) for our goldsmiths and our graves."
I was a blacksmith in the Pre-lslamic period, and 'Asi bin Wail owed me some money, so I went to him to demand it. He said (to me), "I will not pay you unless you disbelieve Muhammad." I said, "I will not disbelieve till Allah kills you and then you get resurrected." He said, "Leave me till I die and get resurrected, then I will be given wealth and children and I will pay you your debt." On that occasion it was revealed to the Prophet:
'Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our signs and says: Surely I will be given wealth and children? Has he known the unseen, or has he taken a covenant from the Beneficent (Allah)? (19.77-78)
I heard Anas bin Malik saying, "A tailor invited Allah's Apostle to a meal which he had prepared. " Anas bin Malik said, "I accompanied Allah's Apostle to that meal. He served the Prophet with bread and soup made with gourd and dried meat. I saw the Prophet taking the pieces of gourd from the dish." Anas added, "Since that day I have continued to like gourd."
I heard Sahl bin Sad saying, "A woman brought a Burda (i.e. a square piece of cloth having edging). I asked, 'Do you know what a Burda is?' They replied in the affirmative and said, "It is a cloth sheet with woven margins." Sahl went on, "She addressed the Prophet and said, 'I have woven it with my hands for you to wear.' The Prophet took it as he was in need of it, and came to us wearing it as a waist sheet. One of us said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Give it to me to wear.' The Prophet agreed to give it to him. The Prophet sat with the people for a while and then returned (home), wrapped that waist sheet and sent it to him. The people said to that man, 'You haven't done well by asking him for it when you know that he never turns down anybody's request.' The man replied, 'By Allah, I have not asked him for it except to use it as my shroud when I die." Sahl added; "Later it (i.e. that sheet) was his shroud."
Some men came to Sahl bin Sad to ask him about the pulpit. He replied, "Allah's Apostle sent for a woman (Sahl named her) (this message): 'Order your slave carpenter to make pieces of wood (i.e. a pulpit) for me so that I may sit on it while addressing the people.' So, she ordered him to make it from the tamarisk of the forest. He brought it to her and she sent it to Allah's Apostle . Allah's Apostle ordered it to be placed in the mosque: so, it was put and he sat on it.
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: An Ansari woman said to Allah's Apostle, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall I make something for you to sit on, as I have a slave who is a carpenter?" He replied, "If you wish." So, she got a pulpit made for him. When it was Friday
I was with the Prophet in a Ghazwa (Military Expedition) and my camel was slow and exhausted. The Prophet came up to me and said, "O Jabir." I replied, "Yes?" He said, "What is the matter with you?" I replied, "My camel is slow and tired, so I am left behind." So, he got down and poked the camel with his stick and then ordered me to ride. I rode the camel and it became so fast that I had to hold it from going ahead of Allah's Apostle . He then asked me, have you got married?" I replied in the affirmative. He asked, "A virgin or a matron?" I replied, "I married a matron." The Prophet said, "Why have you not married a virgin, so that you may play with her and she may play with you?" Jabir replied, "I have sisters (young in age) so I liked to marry a matron who could collect them all and comb their hair and look after them." The Prophet said, "You will reach, so when you have arrived (at home), I advise you to associate with your wife (that you may have an intelligent son)." Then he asked me, "Would you like to sell your camel?" I replied in the affirmative and the Prophet purchased it for one Uqiya of gold. Allah's Apostle reached before me and I reached in the morning, and when I went to the mosque, I found him at the door of the mosque. He asked me, "Have you arrived just now?" I replied in the affirmative. He said, "Leave your camel and come into (the mosque) and pray two Rakat." I entered and offered the prayer. He told Bilal to weigh and give me one Uqiya of gold. So Bilal weighed for me fairly and I went away. The Prophet sent for me and I thought that he would return to me my camel which I hated more than anything else. But the Prophet said to me, "Take your camel as well as its price."
'Ukaz, Majanna and Dhul-Majaz were markets in the Pre-lslamic period. When the people embraced Islam they considered it a sin to trade there. So, the following Holy Verse came:-- 'There is no harm for you if you seek of the bounty of your Lord (Allah) in the Hajj season." (2.198) Ibn 'Abbas recited it like this.
Here (i.e. in Mecca) there was a man called Nawwas and he had camels suffering from the disease of excessive and unquenchable thirst. Ibn 'Umar went to the partner of Nawwas and bought those camels. The man returned to Nawwas and told him that he had sold those camels. Nawwas asked him, "To whom have you sold them?" He replied, "To such and such Sheikh." Nawwas said, "Woe to you; By Allah, that Sheikh was Ibn 'Umar." Nawwas then went to Ibn 'Umar and said to him, "My partner sold you camels suffering from the disease of excessive thirst and he had not known you." Ibn 'Umar told him to take them back. When Nawwas went to take them, Ibn 'Umar said to him, "Leave them there as I am happy with the decision of Allah's Apostle that there is no oppression . "
We set out with Allah's Apostle in the year of Hunain, (the Prophet gave me an armor). I sold that armor and bought a garden in the region of the tribe of Bani Salama and that was the first property I got after embracing Islam.
Allah's Apostle said, "The example of a good companion (who sits with you) in comparison with a bad one, is I like that of the musk seller and the blacksmith's bellows (or furnace); from the first you would either buy musk or enjoy its good smell while the bellows would either burn your clothes or your house, or you get a bad nasty smell thereof."
Once the Prophet sent to 'Umar a silken two-piece garment, and when he saw 'Umar wearing it, he said to him, "I have not sent it to you to wear. It is worn by him who has no share in the Hereafter, and I have sent it to you so that you could benefit by it (i.e. sell it)."
(mother of the faithful believers) I bought a cushion with pictures on it. When Allah's Apostle saw it, he kept standing at the door and did not enter the house. I noticed the sign of disgust on his face, so I said, "O Allah's Apostle! I repent to Allah and H is Apostle . (Please let me know) what sin I have done." Allah's Apostle said, "What about this cushion?" I replied, "I bought it for you to sit and recline on." Allah's Apostle said, "The painters (i.e. owners) of these pictures will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, 'Put life in what you have created (i.e. painted).' " The Prophet added, "The angels do not enter a house where there are pictures."
The Prophet said, "The buyer and the seller have the option to cancel or confirm the bargain before they separate from each other or if the sale is optional." Nafi said, "Ibn 'Umar used to separate quickly from the seller if he had bought a thing which he liked."
Allah's Apostle said, "The seller and the buyer have the option of cancelling or confirming the deal unless they separate, or one of them says to the other, 'Choose (i.e. decide to cancel or confirm the bargain now)." Perhaps he said, 'Or if it is an optional sale.' " Ibn Umar, Shuraih, Ash-Shabi, Tawus, Ata, and Ibn Abu Mulaika agree upon this judgment.
The Prophet said, "The buyer and the seller have the option of cancelling or confirming the bargain unless they separate, and if they spoke the truth and made clear the defects of the goods, them they would be blessed in their bargain, and if they told lies and hid some facts, their bargain would be deprived of Allah's blessings."
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "Both the buyer and the seller have the option of cancelling or confirming a bargain unless they separate, or the sale is optional." (See Hadith No.320).
Narrated Ibn Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "Both the buyer and the seller have the option of cancelling or confirming the bargain, as long as they are still together, and unless they separate or one of them gives the other the option of keeping or rejecting.
The Prophet said, "No deal is settled and finalized unless the buyer and the seller separate, except if the deal is optional (whereby the validity of the bargain depends on the stipulations agreed upon)."
The Prophet said, "Both the buyer and the seller have the option of cancelling or confirming the bargain unless they separate." The sub-narrator, Hammam said, "I found this in my book: 'Both the buyer and the seller give the option of either confirming or cancelling the bargain three times, and if they speak the truth and mention the defects, then their bargain will be blessed, and if they tell lies and conceal the defects, they might gain some financial gain but they will deprive their sale of (Allah's) blessings."
Allah's Apostle said, "An army will invade the Ka'ba and when the invaders reach Al-Baida', all the ground will sink and swallow the whole army." I said, "O Allah's Apostle! How will they sink into the ground while amongst them will be their markets (the people who worked in business and not invaders) and the people not belonging to them?" The Prophet replied, "all of those people will sink but they will be resurrected and judged according to their intentions."
Allah's Apostle said, "The congregational prayer of anyone amongst you is more than twenty (five or twenty seven) times in reward than his prayer in the market or in his house, for if he performs ablution completely and then goes to the mosque with the sole intention of performing the prayer, and nothing urges him to proceed to the mosque except the prayer, then, on every step which he takes towards the mosque, he will be raised one degree or one of his sins will be forgiven. The angels will keep on asking Allah's forgiveness and blessings for everyone of you so long as he keeps sitting at his praying place. The angels will say, 'O Allah, bless him! O Allah, be merciful to him!' as long as he does not do Hadath or a thing which gives trouble to the other." The Prophet further said, "One is regarded in prayer so long as one is waiting for the prayer."
While the Prophet was in the market, somebody, called, "O Abu-l-Qasim." The Prophet turned to him. The man said, "I have called to this (i.e. another man)." The Prophet said, "Name yourselves by my name but not by my Kuniya (name)." (In Arabic world it is the custom to call the man as the father of his eldest son, e.g. Abu-l-Qasim.)
A man at Al-Baqi' called, "O Abu-l-Qasim!" The Prophet turned to him and the man said (to the Prophet ), "I did not intend to call you." The prophet said, "Name yourselves by my name but not by my kuniya (name)."
Once the Prophet went out during the day. Neither did he talk to me nor I to him till he reached the market of Bani Qainuqa and then he sat in the compound of Fatima's house and asked about the small boy (his grandson Al-Hasan) but Fatima kept the boy in for a while. I thought she was either changing his clothes or giving the boy a bath. After a while the boy came out running and the Prophet embraced and kissed him and then said, 'O Allah! Love him, and love whoever loves him.'
Ibn 'Umar told us that the people used to buy food from the caravans in the lifetime of the Prophet. The Prophet used to forbid them to sell it at the very place where they had purchased it (but they were to wait) till they carried it to the market where foodstuff was sold. Ibn 'Umar said, 'The Prophet also forbade the reselling of foodstuff by somebody who had bought it unless he had received it with exact full measure'
I met Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-'As and asked him, "Tell me about the description of Allah's Apostle which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament.") He replied, 'Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows:
"O Prophet ! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah's True religion) And a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), And a warner (to the unbelievers) And guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you "Al-Mutawakkil" (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh Nor a noise-maker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) Die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah," With which will be opened blind eyes And deaf ears and enveloped hearts."
Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Haram died and was in debt to others. I asked the Prophet to intercede with his creditors for some reduction in the debts. The Prophet requested them (to reduce the debts) but they refused. The Prophet said to me, "Go and put your dates (In heaps) according to their different kinds. The Ajwa on one side, the cluster of Ibn Zaid on another side, etc.. Then call me." I did that and called the Prophet He came and sat at the head or in the middle of the heaps and ordered me. Measure (the dates) for the people (creditors)." I measured for them till I paid all the debts. My dates remained as it nothing had been taken from them. In other narrations, Jabir said; The Prophet said, "He (i.e. 'Abdullah) continued measuring for them till he paid all the debts." The Prophet said (to 'Abdullah), "Cut (clusters) for him (i.e. one of the creditors) and measure for him fully."
The Prophet said, "The Prophet Abraham made Mecca a sanctuary, and asked for Allah's blessing in it. I made Medina a sanctuary as Abraham made Mecca a sanctuary and I asked for Allah's Blessing in its measures the Mudd and the Sa as Abraham did for Mecca.
Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah's Apostle forbade the selling of foodstuff before its measuring and transferring into one's possession." I asked Ibn 'Abbas, "How is that?" Ibn 'Abbas replied, "It will be just like selling money for money, as the foodstuff has not been handed over to the first purchaser who is the present seller."
that the latter said, "Who has change?" Talha said, "I (will have change) when our store-keeper comes from the forest."
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: Allah's Apostle said, "The bartering of gold for silver is Riba, (usury), except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and wheat grain for wheat grain is usury except if it is form hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and barley for barley is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount." (See Riba-Fadl in the glossary).
I saw the people buy foodstuff randomly (i.e. blindly without measuring it) in the life-time of Allah's Apostle and they were punished (by beating), if they tried to sell it before carrying it to their own houses.
Rarely did the Prophet fail to visit Abu Bakr's house everyday, either in the morning or in the evening. When the permission for migration to Medina was granted, all of a sudden the Prophet came to us at noon and Abu Bakr was informed, who said, "Certainly the Prophet has come for some urgent matter." The Prophet said to Abu Bark, when the latter entered "Let nobody stay in your home." Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! There are only my two daughters (namely 'Aisha and Asma') present." The Prophet said, "I feel (am informed) that I have been granted the permission for migration." Abu Bakr said, "I will accompany you, O Allah's Apostle!" The Prophet said, "You will accompany me." Abu Bakr then said "O Allah's Apostle! I have two she-camels I have prepared specially for migration, so I offer you one of them. The Prophet said, "I have accepted it on the condition that I will pay its price."
Allah's Apostle forbade the selling of things by a town dweller on behalf of a desert dweller; and similarly Najsh was forbidden. And one should not urge somebody to return the goods to the seller so as to sell him his own goods; nor should one demand the hand of a girl who has already been engaged to someone else; and a woman should not try to cause some other woman to be divorced in order to take her place.
A man decided that a slave of his would be manumitted after his death and later on he was in need of money, so the Prophet took the slave and said, "Who will buy this slave from me?" Nu'aim bin 'Abdullah bought him for such and such price and the Prophet gave him the slave.
Allah's Apostle forbade the sale called 'Habal-al-Habala which was a kind of sale practiced in the Pre-lslamic Period of ignorance. One would pay the price of a she-camel which was not born yet would be born by the immediate offspring of an extant she-camel.
Allah's Apostle forbade the selling by Munabadha, i.e. to sell one's garment by casting it to the buyer not allowing him to examine or see it. Similarly he forbade the selling by Mulamasa. Mulamasa is to buy a garment, for example, by merely touching it, not looking at it.
The Prophet forbade two kinds of dressing; (one of them) is to sit with one's legs drawn up while wrapped in one garment. (The other) is to lift that garment on one's shoulders. And also forbade two kinds of sale: Al-Limas and An-Nibadh.
The Prophet said, "Don't keep camels and sheep unmilked for a long time, for whoever buys such an animal has the option to milk it and then either to keep it or return it to the owner along with one Sa of dates." Some narrated from Ibn Sirin (that the Prophet had said), "One Sa of wheat, and he has the option for three days." And some narrated from Ibn Sirin, " ... a Sa of dates," not mentioning the option for three days. But a Sa of dates is mentioned in most narrations.
Whoever buys a sheep which has not been milked for a long time, has the option of returning it along with one Sa of dates; and the Prophet forbade going to meet the seller on the way (as he has no knowledge of the market price and he may sell his goods at a low price).
Allah's Apostle said, "Do not go forward to meet the caravan (to buy from it on the way before it reaches the town). And do not urge buyers to cancel their purchases to sell them (your own goods) yourselves, and do not practice Najsh. A town dweller should not sell the goods for the desert dweller. Do not leave sheep unmilked for a long time, when they are on sale, and whoever buys such an animal has the option of returning it, after milking it, along with a Sa of dates or keeping it. it has been kept unmilked for a long period by the seller (to deceive others).
Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever buys a sheep which has been kept unmilked for a long period, and milks it, can keep it if he is satisfied, and if he is not satisfied, he can return it, but he should pay one Sa of dates for the milk."
The Prophet said, "If a slave-girl commits illegal sexual intercourse and it is proved beyond doubt, then her owner should lash her and should not blame her after the legal punishment. And then if she repeats the illegal sexual intercourse he should lash her again and should not blame her after the legal punishment, and if she commits it a third time, then he should sell her even for a hair rope."
Allah's Apostle was asked about the slave-girl, if she was a virgin and committed illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet said, "If she committed illegal sexual intercourse, lash her, and if she did it a second time, then lash her again, and if she repeated the third time, then sell her even for a hair rope." Ibn Shihab said, "I don't know whether to sell her after the third or fourth offense."
Allah's Apostle came to me and I told him about the slave-girl (Buraira) Allah's Apostle said, "Buy and manumit her, for the Wala is for the one who manumits." In the evening the Prophet got up and glorified Allah as He deserved and then said, "Why do some people impose conditions which are not present in Allah's Book (Laws)? Whoever imposes such a condition as is not in Allah's Laws, then that condition is invalid even if he imposes one hundred conditions, for Allah's conditions are more binding and reliable."
Aisha wanted to buy Buraira and he (the Prophet ) went out for the prayer. When he returned, she told him that they (her masters) refused to sell her except on the condition that her Wala' would go to them. The Prophet replied, 'The Wala' would go to him who manumits.' " Hammam asked Nafi' whether her (Buraira's) husband was a free man or a slave. He replied that he did not know.
I have given a pledge of allegiance to Allah's Apostle for to testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad is His Apostle, to offer prayers perfectly, to pay Zakat, to listen to and obey (Allah's and His Prophet's orders), and to give good advice to every Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah's Apostle said, 'Do not go to meet the caravans on the way (for buying their goods without letting them know the market price); a town dweller should not sell the goods of a desert dweller on behalf of the latter.' I asked Ibn 'Abbas, 'What does he mean by not selling the goods of a desert dweller by a town dweller?' He said, 'He should not become his broker.' "
Whoever buys an animal which has been kept unmilked for a long time, could return it, but has to pay a Sa of dates along with it. And the Prophet forbade meeting the owners of goods on the way away from the market.
Allah's Apostle said, "You should not try to cancel the purchases of one another (to get a benefit thereof), and do not go ahead to meet the caravan (for buying the goods) (but wait) till it reaches the market."
Aisha said, "Buraira came to me and said, 'I have agreed with my masters to pay them nine Uqiyas (of gold) (in installments) one Uqiya per year; please help me.' I said, 'I am ready to pay the whole amount now provided your masters agree that your Wala will be for me.' So, Buraira went to her masters and told them about that offer but they refused to accept it. She returned, and at that time, Allah's Apostle was sitting (present). Buraira said, 'I told them of the offer but they did not accept it and insisted on having the Wala.'.' The Prophet heard that." 'Aisha narrated the whole story to the Prophet . He said to her, "Buy her and stipulate that her Wala' would be yours as the Wala' is for the manumitted." 'Aisha did so. Then Allah's Apostle stood up in front of the people, and after glorifying Allah he said, "Amma Badu (i.e. then after)! What about the people who impose conditions which are not in Allah's Book (Laws)? Any condition that is not in Allah's Book (Laws) is invalid even if they were one hundred conditions, for Allah's decisions are the right ones and His conditions are the strong ones (firmer) and the Wala' will be for the manumitted."
Aisha, (mother of the faithful believers) wanted to buy a slave girl and manumit her, but her masters said that they would sell her only on the condition that her Wala' would be for them. 'Aisha told Allah's Apostle of that. He said, "What they stipulate should not hinder you from buying her, as the Wala' is for the manumitted."
The Prophet said, "The selling of wheat for wheat is Riba (usury) except if it is handed from hand to hand and equal in amount. Similarly the selling of barley for barley, is Riba except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount. (See Riba-Fadl in the glossary).
The Prophet forbade Muzabana; and Muzabana is the selling of fresh fruit (without measuring it) for something by measure on the basis that if that thing turns to be more than the fruit, the increase would be for the seller of the fruit, and if it turns to be less, that would be of his lot.
Narrated Ibn 'Umar from Zaid bin Thabit that the Prophet allowed the selling of the fruits on the trees after estimation (when they are ripe).
that Malik bin Aus said, "I was in need of change for one-hundred Dinars. Talha bin 'Ubaid-Ullah called me and we discussed the matter, and he agreed to change (my Dinars). He took the gold pieces in his hands and fidgeted with them, and then said, "Wait till my storekeeper comes from the forest." 'Umar was listening to that and said, "By Allah! You should not separate from Talha till you get the money from him, for Allah's Apostle said, 'The selling of gold for gold is Riba (usury) except if the exchange is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and similarly, the selling of wheat for wheat is Riba (usury) unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and the selling of barley for barley is usury unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates, is usury unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount"
Allah's Apostle said, "Do not sell gold for gold unless equivalent in weight, and do not sell less amount for greater amount or vice versa; and do not sell silver for silver unless equivalent in weight, and do not sell less amount for greater amount or vice versa and do not sell gold or silver that is not present at the moment of exchange for gold or silver that is present.
I heard Abu Said Al-Khudri saying, "The selling of a Dinar for a Dinar, and a Dirham for a Dirham (is permissible)." I said to him, "Ibn 'Abbas does not say the same." Abu Said replied, "I asked Ibn 'Abbas whether he had heard it from the Prophet s or seen it in the Holy Book. Ibn 'Abbas replied, "I do not claim that, and you know Allah's Apostle better than I, but Usama informed me that the Prophet had said, 'There is no Riba (in money exchange) except when it is not done from hand to hand (i.e. when there is delay in payment).' "
I asked Al-Bara' bin 'Azib and Zaid bin Arqam about money exchanges. Each of them said, "This is better than I," and both of them said, "Allah's Apostle forbade the selling of silver for gold on credit. "
that his father said, "The Prophet forbade the selling of gold for gold and silver for silver except if they are equivalent in weight, and allowed us to sell gold for silver and vice versa as we wished."
Allah's Apostle said, "Do not sell fruits of dates until they become free from all the dangers of being spoilt or blighted; and do not sell fresh dates for dry dates."
Narrated Salim and 'Abdullah from Zaid bin Habit' "Later on Allah's Apostle permitted the selling of ripe fruits on trees for fresh dates or dried dates in Bai'-l-'Araya, and did not allow it for any other kind of sale."
The Prophet forbade the selling of fruits unless they get ripe, and none of them should be sold except for Dinar or Dirham (i.e. money), except the 'Araya trees (the dates of which could be sold for dates).
Allah's Apostle forbade the selling of fruits (fresh dates) for dried dates but allowed the sale of fruits on the 'Araya by estimation and their new owners might eat their dates fresh. Sufyan (in another narration) said, "I told Yahya (a sub-narrator) when I was a mere boy, 'Meccans say that the Prophet allowed them the sale of the fruits on 'Araya by estimation.' Yahya asked, 'How do the Meccans know about it?' I replied, 'They narrated it (from the Prophet ) through Jabir.' On that, Yahya kept quiet." Sufyan said, "I meant that Jabir belonged to Medina." Sufyan was asked whether in Jabir's narration there was any prohibition of selling fruits before their benefit is evident (i.e. no dangers of being spoilt or blighted). He replied that there was none.
Allah's Apostle allowed the sale of 'Araya by estimating the dates on them for measured amounts of dried dates. Musa bin 'Uqba said, "Al- 'Araya were distinguished date palms; one could come and buy them (i.e. their fruits)."
The Prophet forbade the sale of fruits till their benefit is evident; and the sale of date palms till the dates are almost ripe. He was asked what 'are almost ripe' meant. He replied, "Got red and yellow."
Allah's Apostle forbade the sale of fruits till they are almost ripe. He was asked what is meant by 'are almost ripe.' He replied, "Till they become red." Allah's Apostle further said, "If Allah spoiled the fruits, what right would one have to take the money of one's brother (i.e. other people)?"
Narrated Ibn Shihab: If somebody bought fruits before their benefit is evident and then the fruits were spoiled with blights, the loss would be suffered by the owner (not the buyer).
Narrated Salim bin 'Abdullah from Ibn Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "Do not sell or buy fruits before their benefit was evident and do not sell fresh fruits (dates) for dried dates."
Allah's Apostle appointed somebody as a governor of Khaibar. That governor brought to him an excellent kind of dates (from Khaibar). The Prophet asked, "Are all the dates of Khaibar like this?" He replied, "By Allah, no, O Allah's Apostle! But we barter one Sa of this (type of dates) for two Sas of dates of ours and two Sas of it for three of ours." Allah's Apostle said, "Do not do so (as that is a kind of usury) but sell the mixed dates (of inferior quality) for money, and then buy good dates with that money."
Allah's Apostle forbade Al-Muzabana, i.e. to sell ungathered dates of one's garden for measured dried dates or fresh ungathered grapes for measured dried grapes; or standing crops for measured quantity of foodstuff. He forbade all such bargains.
Anas said, "The Prophet forbade the selling of dates till they were almost ripe." We asked Anas, "What does 'almost ripe' mean?" He replied, "They get red and yellow. The Prophet added, 'If Allah destroyed the fruits present on the trees, what right would the seller have to take the money of his brother (somebody else)?' "
I was with the Prophet while he was eating spadix. He said, "From the trees there is a tree which resembles a faithful believer." I wanted to say that it was the date palm, but I was the youngest among them (so I kept quiet). He added, "It is the date palm." Shuraih told the weavers, "You are permitted to follow your own conventions to solve your problems (it is legal for you to stick to your traditions in bargain) . "
Narrated 'Abdul Wahab: Aiyub said: Muhammad said, "There is no harm in selling for eleven what you buy for ten, and you are allowed to take a profit for expenses . "
The Prophet told Hind, "Take what is reasonable and sufficient for you and your sons." Allah says: Whoever is poor, can eat (from the orphan's property) reasonably (according to his labors).
Al-Hasan hired a donkey from 'Abdullah bin Mirdas and asked him about the hire. The latter replied that it was for two Daniqs (a Daniq equals 116th Dirham). So Al-Hasan rode away. Another time, Al-Hasan came to 'Abdullah bin Mirdas and asked him to hire the donkey to him and rode away without asking him about the hire, but he sent him half a Dirham.
Hind, the mother of Mu'awiya said to Allah's Apostle, "Abu Sufyan (her husband) is a miser. Am I allowed to take from his money secretly?" The Prophet said to her, "You and your sons may take what is sufficient reasonably and fairly."
who heard Aisha saying, "The Holy Verse; 'Whoever amongst the guardians is rich, he should take no wages (from the property of the orphans) but If he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his labors)' (4.6) was revealed concerning the guardian of the orphans who looks after them and manages favorably their financial affairs; If the guardian Is poor, he could have from It what Is just and reasonable, (according to his labors)."
The Prophet said, "While three persons were walking, rain began to fall and they had to enter a cave in a mountain. A big rock rolled over and blocked the mouth of the cave. They said to each other, 'Invoke Allah with the best deed you have performed (so Allah might remove the rock)'. One of them said, 'O Allah! My parents were old and I used to go out for grazing (my animals). On my return I would milk (the animals) and take the milk in a vessel to my parents to drink. After they had drunk from it, I would give it to my children, family and wife. One day I was delayed and on my return I found my parents sleeping, and I disliked to wake them up. The children were crying at my feet (because of hunger). That state of affairs continued till it was dawn. O Allah! If You regard that I did it for Your sake, then please remove this rock so that we may see the sky.' So, the rock was moved a bit. The second said, 'O Allah! You know that I was in love with a cousin of mine, like the deepest love a man may have for a woman, and she told me that I would not get my desire fulfilled unless I paid her one-hundred Dinars (gold pieces). So, I struggled for it till I gathered the desired amount, and when I sat in between her legs, she told me to be afraid of Allah, and asked me not to deflower her except rightfully (by marriage). So, I got up and left her. O Allah! If You regard that I did if for Your sake, kindly remove this rock.' So, two-thirds of the rock was removed. Then the third man said, 'O Allah! No doubt You know that once I employed a worker for one Faraq (three Sa's) of millet, and when I wanted to pay him, he refused to take it, so I sowed it and from its yield I bought cows and a shepherd. After a time that man came and demanded his money. I said to him: Go to those cows and the shepherd and take them for they are for you. He asked me whether I was joking with him. I told him that I was not joking with him, and all that belonged to him. O Allah! If You regard that I did it sincerely for Your sake, then please remove the rock.' So, the rock was removed completely from the mouth of the cave."
We were with the Prophet when a tall pagan with long matted unkempt hair came driving his sheep. The Prophet asked him, "Are those sheep for sale or for gifts?" The pagan replied, "They are for sale." The Prophet bought one sheep from him.
The Prophet said, "The Prophet Abraham emigrated with Sarah and entered a village where there was a king or a tyrant. (The king) was told that Abraham had entered (the village) accompanied by a woman who was one of the most charming women. So, the king sent for Abraham and asked, 'O Abraham! Who is this lady accompanying you?' Abraham replied, 'She is my sister (i.e. in religion).' Then Abraham returned to her and said, 'Do not contradict my statement, for I have informed them that you are my sister. By Allah, there are no true believers on this land except you and 1.' Then Abraham sent her to the king. When the king got to her, she got up and performed ablution, prayed and said, 'O Allah! If I have believed in You and Your Apostle, and have saved my private parts from everybody except my husband, then please do not let this pagan overpower me.' On that the king fell in a mood of agitation and started moving his legs. Seeing the condition of the king, Sarah said, 'O Allah! If he should die, the people will say that I have killed him.' The king regained his power, and proceeded towards her but she got up again and performed ablution, prayed and said, 'O Allah! If I have believed in You and Your Apostle and have kept my private parts safe from all except my husband, then please do not let this pagan overpower me.' The king again fell in a mood of agitation and started moving his legs. On seeing that state of the king, Sarah said, 'O Allah! If he should die, the people will say that I have killed him.' The king got either two or three attacks, and after recovering from the last attack he said, 'By Allah! You have sent a satan to me. Take her to Abraham and give her Ajar.' So she came back to Abraham and said, 'Allah humiliated the pagan and gave us a slavegirl for service."
Sad bin Abi Waqqas and 'Abu bin Zam'a quarreled over a boy. Sad said, "O Allah's Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother ('Utba bin Abi Waqqas) who took a promise from me that I would take him as he was his (illegal) son. Look at him and see whom he resembles." 'Abu bin Zam'a said, "O Allah's Apostle! This is my brother and was born on my father's bed from his slave-girl." Allah's Apostle cast a look at the boy and found definite resemblance to 'Utba and then said, "The boy is for you, O 'Abu bin Zam'a. The child goes to the owner of the bed and the adulterer gets nothing but the stones (despair, i.e. to be stoned to death). Then the Prophet said, "O Sauda bint Zama! Screen yourself from this boy." So, Sauda never saw him again.
Abdur-Rahman bin Auf said to Suhaib, 'Fear Allah and do not ascribe yourself to somebody other than your father.' Suhaib replied, 'I would not like to say it even if I were given large amounts of money, but I say I was kidnapped in my childhood.' "
Hakim bin Hizam said, "O Allah's Apostle! I used to do good deeds in the Pre-lslamic period of Ignorance, e.g., keeping good relations with my Kith and kin, manumitting slaves and giving alms. Shall I receive a reward for all that?" Allah's Apostle replied, "You embraced Islam with all the good deeds which you did in the past."
Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Mary (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims) as a just ruler and will break the Cross and kill the pig and abolish the Jizya (a tax taken from the non-Muslims, who are in the protection, of the Muslim government). Then there will be abundance of money and no-body will accept charitable gifts.
Once 'Umar was informed that a certain man sold alcohol. 'Umar said, "May Allah curse him! Doesn't he know that Allah's Apostle said, 'May Allah curse the Jews, for Allah had forbidden them to eat the fat of animals but they melted it and sold it."
While I was with Ibn 'Abbas a man came and said, "O father of 'Abbas! My sustenance is from my manual profession and I make these pictures." Ibn 'Abbas said, "I will tell you only what I heard from Allah's Apostle . I heard him saying, 'Whoever makes a picture will be punished by Allah till he puts life in it, and he will never be able to put life in it.' " Hearing this, that man heaved a sigh and his face turned pale. Ibn 'Abbas said to him, "What a pity! If you insist on making pictures I advise you to make pictures of trees and any other unanimated objects."
that while he was sitting with Allah's Apostle he said, "O Allah's Apostle! We get female captives as our share of booty, and we are interested in their prices, what is your opinion about coitus interrupt us?" The Prophet said, "Do you really do that? It is better for you not to do it. No soul that which Allah has destined to exist, but will surely come into existence.
that Allah's Apostle was asked about an unmarried slave-girl who committed illegal sexual intercourse. They heard him saying, "Flog her, and if she commits illegal sexual intercourse after that, flog her again, and on the third (or the fourth) offense, sell her."
I heard the Prophet saying, "If a slave-girl of yours commits illegal sexual intercourse and her illegal sexual intercourse is proved, she should be lashed, and after that nobody should blame her, and if she commits illegal sexual intercourse the second time, she should be lashed and nobody should blame her after that, and if she does the offense for the third time and her illegal sexual intercourse is proved, she should be sold even for a hair rope."
The Prophet came to Khaibar and when Allah made him victorious and he conquered the town by breaking the enemy's defense, the beauty of Safiya bint Huyai bin Akhtab was mentioned to him and her husband had been killed while she was a bride. Allah's Apostle selected her for himself and he set out in her company till he reached Sadd-ar-Rawha' where her menses were over and he married her. Then Hais (a kind of meal) was prepared and served on a small leather sheet (used for serving meals). Allah's Apostle then said to me, "Inform those who are around you (about the wedding banquet)." So that was the marriage banquet given by Allah's Apostle for (his marriage with) Safiya. After that we proceeded to Medina and I saw that Allah's Apostle was covering her with a cloak while she was behind him. Then he would sit beside his camel and let Safiya put her feet on his knees to ride (the camel).
I heard Allah's Apostle, in the year of the Conquest of Mecca, saying, "Allah and His Apostle made illegal the trade of alcohol, dead animals, pigs and idols." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What about the fat of dead animals, for it was used for greasing the boats and the hides; and people use it for lights?" He said, "No, it is illegal." Allah's Apostle further said, "May Allah curse the Jews, for Allah made the fat (of animals) illegal for them, yet they melted the fat and sold it and ate its price."
I saw my father buying a slave whose profession was cupping, and ordered that his instruments (of cupping) be broken. I asked him the reason for doing so. He replied, "Allah's Apostle prohibited taking money for blood, the price of a dog, and the earnings of a slave-girl by prostitution; he cursed her who tattoos and her who gets tattooed, the eater of Riba (usury), and the maker of pictures."