Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle." Abu Huraira (in another narration) said from the Prophet, "unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting." Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting."
Abu Sufyan bin Abu Zuhair, a man from Azd Shanu'a and one of the companions of the Prophet said, "I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'If one keeps a dog which is meant for guarding neither a farm nor cattle, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily." I said, "Did you hear this from Allah's Apostle?" He said, "Yes, by the Lord of this Mosque."
The Prophet said, "While a man was riding a cow, it turned towards him and said, 'I have not been created for this purpose (i.e. carrying), I have been created for sloughing." The Prophet added, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar believe in the story." The Prophet went on, "A wolf caught a sheep, and when the shepherd chased it, the wolf said, 'Who will be its guard on the day of wild beasts, when there will be no shepherd for it except me?' "After narrating it, the Prophet said, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar too believe it." Abu Salama (a sub-narrator) said, "Abu Bakr and 'Umar were not present then." (It has been written that a wolf also spoke to one of the companions of the Prophet near Medina as narrated in Fatah-al-Bari:
Narrated Unais bin 'Amr: Ahban bin Aus said, "I was amongst my sheep. Suddenly a wolf caught a sheep and I shouted at it. The wolf sat on its tail and addressed me, saying, 'Who will look after it (i.e. the sheep) when you will be busy and not able to look after it? Do you forbid me the provision which Allah has provided me?' " Ahban added, "I clapped my hands and said, 'By Allah, I have never seen anything more curious and wonderful than this!' On that the wolf said, 'There is something (more curious) and wonderful than this; that is, Allah's Apostle in those palm trees, inviting people to Allah (i.e. Islam).' "Unais bin 'Amr further said, "Then Ahban went to Allah's Apostle and informed him what happened and embraced Islam.)" palm trees or other trees and share the fruits with me."
The Ansar said to the Prophet "Distribute the date palm trees between us and our emigrant brothers." He replied, "No." The Ansar said (to the emigrants), "Look after the trees (water and watch them) and share the fruits with us." The emigrants said, "We listen and obey."
The Prophet got the date palm trees of the tribe of Bani-An-Nadir burnt and the trees cut down at a place called Al-Buwaira . Hassan bin Thabit said in a poetic verse: "The chiefs of Bani Lu'ai found it easy to watch fire spreading at Al-Buwaira."
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land at the yield of specific delimited portion of it to be given to the landlord. Sometimes the vegetation of that portion was affected by blights etc., while the rest remained safe and vice versa, so the Prophet forbade this practice. At that time gold or silver were not used (for renting the land). If they provided the seeds, they would get so-and-so much. Al-Hasan said, "There is no harm if the land belongs to one but both spend on it and the yield is divided between them." Az-Zuhri had the same opinion. Al-Hasan said, "There is no harm if cotton is picked on the condition of having half the yield." Ibrahim, Ibn Siain, 'Ata', Al-Hakam, Az-Zuhri and Qatada said, "There is no harm in giving the yarn to the weaver to weave into cloth on the basis that one-third or one-fourth (or any other portion) of the cloth is given to the weaver for his labor." Ma'am said, "There is no harm in hiring animals for a definite (fixed) period on the basis that one-third or one-fourth of the products carried by the animals is given to the owner of the animals."
The Prophet concluded a contract with the people of Khaibar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each, eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When 'Umar became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and 'Aisha chose the land.
I said to Tawus, "I wish you would give up Mukhabara (Share-cropping), for the people say that the Prophet forbade it." On that Tawus replied, "O 'Amr! I give the land to share-croppers and help them. No doubt; the most learned man, namely Ibn 'Abbas told me that the Prophet had not forbidden it but said, 'It is more beneficial for one to give his land free to one's brother than to charge him a fixed rental."
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land and say to the owner, "The yield of this portion is for us and the yield of that portion is for you (as the rent)." One of those portions might yield something and the other might not. So, the Prophet forbade us to do so.
The Prophet said, "While three men were walking, It started raining and they took shelter (refuge) in a cave in a mountain. A big rock rolled down from the mountain and closed the mouth of the cave. They said to each other, "Think of good deeds which you did for Allah's sake only, and invoke Allah by giving reference to those deeds so that He may remove this rock from you." One of them said, 'O Allah! I had old parents and small children and I used to graze the sheep for them. On my return to them in the evening, I used to milk (the sheep) and start providing my parents first of all before my children. One day I was delayed and came late at night and found my parents sleeping. I milked (the sheep) as usual and stood by their heads. I hated to wake them up and disliked to give milk to my children before them, although my children were weeping (because of hunger) at my feet till the day dawned. O Allah! If I did this for Your sake only, kindly remove the rock so that we could see the sky through it.' So, Allah removed the rock a little and they saw the sky. The second man said, 'O Allah! I was in love with a cousin of mine like the deepest love a man may have for a woman. I wanted to outrage her chastity but she refused unless I gave her one hundred Dinars. So, I struggled to collect that amount. And when I sat between her legs, she said, 'O Allah's slave! Be afraid of Allah and do not deflower me except rightfully (by marriage).' So, I got up. O Allah! If I did it for Your sake only, please remove the rock.' The rock shifted a little more. Then the third man said, 'O Allah! I employed a laborer for a Faraq of rice and when he finished his job and demanded his right, I presented it to him, but he refused to take it. So, I sowed the rice many time till I gathered cows and their shepherd (from the yield). (Then after some time) He came and said to me, 'Fear Allah (and give me my right)." I said, 'Go and take those cows and the shepherd.' He said, 'Be afraid of Allah! Don't mock at me.' I said, 'I am not mocking at you. Take (all that).' So, he took all that. O Allah! If I did that for Your sake only, please remove the rest of the rock.' So, Allah removed the rock."
While the Prophet was passing the night at his place of rest in Dhul-Hulaifa in the bottom of the valley (of Aqiq), he saw a dream and it was said to him, "You are in a blessed valley." Musa said, "Salim let our camels kneel at the place where 'Abdullah used to make his camel kneel, seeking the place where Allah's Apostle used to take a rest, which is situated below the mosque which is in the bottom of the valley; it is midway between the mosque and the road."
While the Prophet was in Al-'Aqiq he said, "Someone (meaning Gabriel) came to me from my Lord tonight (in my dream) and said, 'Offer the prayer in this blessed valley and say (I intend to perform) Umra along with Hajj (together).' "
Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah's Apostle had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Apostle, and the Muslims. Allah's Apostle intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits. Allah's Apostle told them, "We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish." So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until 'Umar forced them to go towards Taima' and Ariha'.
My uncle Zuhair said, "Allah's Apostle forbade us to do a thing which was a source of help to us." I said, "Whatever Allah's Apostle said was right." He said, "Allah's Apostle sent for me and asked, 'What are you doing with your farms?' I replied, 'We give our farms on rent on the basis that we get the yield produced at the banks of the water streams (rivers) for the rent, or rent it for some Wasqs of barley and dates.' Allah's Apostle said, 'Do not do so, but cultivate (the land) yourselves or let it be cultivated by others gratis, or keep it uncultivated.' I said, 'We hear and obey.'
The people used to rent their land for cultivation for one-third, one-fourth or half its yield. The Prophet said, "Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise keep it uncultivated."
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise he should keep it uncultivated."
When I mentioned it (i.e. the narration of Rafi 'bin Khadij: no. 532) to Tawus, he said, "It is permissible to rent the land for cultivation, for Ibn 'Abbas said, 'The Prophet did not forbid that, but said: One had better give the land to one's brother gratis rather than charge a certain amount for it.' "
Ibn 'Umar used to rent his farms in the time of Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and in the early days of Muawiya. Then he was told the narration of Rafi 'bin Khadij that the Prophet had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn 'Umar went to Rafi' and I accompanied him. He asked Rafi who replied that the Prophet had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn 'Umar said, "You know that we used to rent our farms in the life-time of Allah's Apostle for the yield of the banks of the water streams (rivers) and for certain amount of figs.
Abdullah bin 'Umar said, "I knew that the land was rented for cultivation in the life-time of Allah's Apostle ." Later on Ibn 'Umar was afraid that the Prophet had forbidden it, and he had no knowledge of it, so he gave up renting his land.
Rafi bin Khadij said, "My two uncles told me that they (i.e. the companions of the Prophet) used to rent the land in the life-time of the Prophet for the yield on the banks of water streams (rivers) or for a portion of the yield stipulated by the owner of the land. The Prophet forbade it." I said to Rafi, "What about renting the land for Dinars and Dirhams?" He replied, "There is no harm in renting for Dinars-Dirhams. Al-Laith said, "If those who have discernment for distinguishing what is legal from what is illegal looked into what has been forbidden concerning this matter they would not permit it, for it is surrounded with dangers."
Once the Prophet was narrating (a story), while a bedouin was sitting with him. "One of the inhabitants of Paradise will ask Allah to allow him to cultivate the land. Allah will ask him, 'Are you not living in the pleasures you like?' He will say, 'Yes, but I like to cultivate the land.' " The Prophet added, "When the man (will be permitted he) will sow the seeds and the plants will grow up and get ripe, ready for reaping and so on till it will be as huge as mountains within a wink. Allah will then say to him, 'O son of Adam! Take here you are, gather (the yield); nothing satisfies you.' " On that, the bedouin said, "The man must be either from Quraish (i.e. an emigrant) or an Ansari, for they are farmers, whereas we are not farmers." The Prophet smiled (at this).
We used to be very happy on Friday as an old lady used to cut some roots of the Silq, which we used to plant on the banks of our small water streams, and cook them in a pot of her's, adding to them, some grains of barley. (Ya'qub, the sub-narrator said, "I think the narrator mentioned that the food did not contain fat or melted fat (taken from meat).") When we offered the Friday prayer we would go to her and she would serve us with the dish. So, we used to be happy on Fridays because of that. We used not to take our meals or the midday nap except after the Jumua prayer (i.e. Friday prayer) .
The people say that Abu Huraira narrates too many narrations. In fact Allah knows whether I say the truth or not. They also ask, "Why do the emigrants and the Ansar not narrate as he does?" In fact, my emigrant brethren were busy trading in the markets, and my Ansar brethren were busy with their properties. I was a poor man keeping the company of Allah's Apostle and was satisfied with what filled my stomach. So, I used to be present while they (i.e. the emigrants and the Ansar) were absent, and I used to remember while they forgot (the Hadith). One day the Prophet said, "Whoever spreads his sheet till I finish this statement of mine and then gathers it on his chest, will never forget anything of my statement." So, I spread my covering sheet which was the only garment I had, till the Prophet finished his statement and then I gathered it over my chest. By Him Who had sent him (i.e. Allah's Apostle) with the truth, since then I did not forget even a single word of that statement of his, until this day of mine. By Allah, but for two verses in Allah's Book, I would never have related any narration (from the Prophet). (These two verses are): "Verily! Those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance which we have sent down .....(up to) the Merciful.' (2.159-160)